Mutations may not be as helpful for neo-Darwinian evolution as expected, say researchers from Harvard. Let’s say five mutations need to occur for a bacterium to gain resistance to an antibiotic, and there are 120 ways to get these mutations. They found that only about 10 of the pathways could be selected by natural selection. Since natural selection would have to confer better fitness at each step, most of the pathways are dead ends. Although the team studied only one particular kind of resistance, “this finding likely applies to most protein evolution,” they said. “Although many mutational paths lead to favored variants, only a very small fraction are likely to result in continuously improved fitness and therefore be relevant to the process of natural selection.” See also Science Daily, EurekAlert. The original paper was published in Science.1 The abstract states:Five point mutations in a particular beta-lactamase allele jointly increase bacterial resistance to a clinically important antibiotic by a factor of 100,000. In principle, evolution to this high-resistance beta-lactamase might follow any of the 120 mutational trajectories linking these alleles. However, we demonstrate that 102 trajectories are inaccessible to Darwinian selection and that many of the remaining trajectories have negligible probabilities of realization, because four of these five mutations fail to increase drug resistance in some combinations. Pervasive biophysical pleiotropy [i.e., one modification causing a cascade of effects] within the beta-lactamase seems to be responsible, and because such pleiotropy appears to be a general property of missense mutations, we conclude that much protein evolution will be similarly constrained. This implies that the protein tape of life [sic] may be largely reproducible and even predictable. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)The last sentence about what this implies is purely a speculation. They elaborate slightly in the last sentence of the paper: “It now appears that intramolecular interactions render many mutational trajectories selectively inaccessible, which implies that replaying the protein tape of life might be surprisingly repetitive. It remains to be seen whether intermolecular interactions similarly constrain Darwinian evolution at larger scales of biological organization.” If those larger scales are random and require multiple steps, it would seem the same principle applies.1Weinreich et al., “Darwinian Evolution Can Follow Only Very Few Mutational Paths to Fitter Proteins,” Science, 7 April 2006: Vol. 312. no. 5770, pp. 111-114, DOI: 10.1126/science.1123539.It wasn’t going to work anyway, so this just makes it harder. They are’t talking about adding new genetic information or function, but rather losing function (susceptibility to the antiobiotic) in such a manner that each stage doesn’t kill all of the organisms in one fell swoop. If this principle applies, as they suggested, to larger scales of biological organization, then the neo-Darwinian gig is, for all practical purposes, over. Try getting a whale from a cow against these kinds of constraints. This makes “the protein tape of life” predictable? In whose Tinker Bell tale?(Visited 13 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
After days of suspense over reaching out to the Shiv Sena for formation of the next government in Maharashtra, the BJP on Tuesday said it was ready to negotiate as soon as its pre-poll ally sent its proposal. The Opposition has made similar overtures to Shiv Sena chief Uddhav Thackeray. The Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) assured the Shiv Sena that it could provide an alternative for government formation if its support was sought. Mr. Pawar met Congress interim president Sonia Gandhi in New Delhi on Monday.On Tuesday, leaders of the NCP and the Congress met Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari. The Opposition leaders sought a hike in the relief announced for the rain-affected farmers.Core panel meeting Thirteen days after the results of the Maharashtra Assembly election left the BJP short of a majority, the party’s core committee met to discuss the stalemate. The Shiv Sena has been demanding the implementation of a 50:50 power-sharing formula, which it claims includes sharing of Cabinet portfolios and the post of Chief Minister. “The committee reviewed the current political situation. The people of Maharashtra have voted for a BJP-Sena coalition, and we will give due respect to this mandate,” State party president Chandrakant Patil said after the meeting at the residence of caretaker Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis.The committee, which includes Girish Mahajan and Sudhir Mungantiwar, is on standby to negotiate with the Sena, but if no proposal comes within two days, the BJP is gearing up for imposition of President’s rule. Senior BJP leader Vinod Tawde met Governor Koshyari after the meeting and apprised him of the party’s position. “We are willing to play a wait and watch game with the Sena,” a senior minister of the BJP said. Mr. Mungantiwar said the party is open to begin talks even in the next 24 hours, and the core committee will meet again on Wednesday to discuss future parleys. “You will soon get the good news on government formation,” he said. The BJP has already forwarded its proposal to the Sena to begin talks on all fronts, except the “non-negotiable” post of the Chief Minister, a source told The Hindu. Late on Tuesday, Mr. Fadnavis flew to Nagpur and met RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat. RSS functionaries in Nagpur were tight-lipped about what transpired at the meeting, though it is being speculated that the meeting was about the political deadlock in the State.The Sena, whose might in the 288-seat Assembly went up to 64 on Tuesday, after an independent MLA Rajendra Patil Yedavkar declared his support for the party, remained hard to please. “This statement (from the BJP) is a sign of maturity. Had they done this earlier, we would have formed government by now,” said Sena leader and Rajya Sabha MP Sanjay Raut.. “All the Sena is saying is do as was decided, nothing more,” Mr. Raut said.
About the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say Liverpool reacts furiously to ‘racist’ Origi from own supportersby Freddie Taylor2 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool have reacted furiously to a banner depicting Divock Origi in Genk.The Reds labelled the flag ‘highly offensive’ after it briefly hung from the second tier in the away end prior to kick-off in Belgium.A Liverpool spokesperson said: “Liverpool Football Club condemns the offensive banner displayed in our section of the ground, prior to kick off.”To be clear, the image used perpetuated a racist stereotype.”This is completely unacceptable. We acted swiftly to have the banner removed and we are now working with the local authorities and stadium team in Genk to identify those responsible.”Any subsequent action will be taken in keeping with our sanctions process.”
At the end of this season, the Ohio State women’s field hockey team will lose four players, including its top three scorers, but the future seems to still be bright. Three women are playing in their first year at OSU — sophomore midfielder Mona Frommhold, freshman midfielder Emma Royce and freshman forward Peanut Johnson. — two of whom lead the team in minutes on the field. Growing up and playing field hockey in Berlin, Frommhold received multiple awards. She was named the best defensive back in 2006 and 2007 at the German indoor championships and the best player at the championships in 2006, 2008 and 2010. She is also a member of the U-21 Germany National Team . As a freshman, Frommhold played in Germany and then transferred to OSU. She said her biggest transition to playing here was combining school and her sport. “We don’t have a college league, we only play in club. The practice between the classes is different than Germany to here,” Frommhold said. Since the first game of the 2012 season, Frommhold has stepped into a starting role. She has started all 17 games, is fourth on the team in goals with six and has tallied four assists. She also has the second most playing time on the team with 1,197 minutes. Frommhold described one lesson she learned from this season so far. “Prepare to have a lot of practice, not only two times per week,” Frommhold said. “Everyday be prepared to practice.” Hailing from Kingston upon Thames, U.K., Royce has played in all 17 games this season and following the season opener has been part of the starting lineup. She has scored two goals and leads the team in playing time with 1,203 minutes. The mental toughness required by players is the biggest lesson Royce said she would take from her first season of college play. “People underestimate how much work and effort and strength you need,” Royce said. “I’m certainly going to prepare myself mentally for not just playing good teams but playing great teams.” Coach Anne Wilkinson said the biggest adjustment for the two international players would be the frequency OSU plays games. “There’s no time to let down … in international (leagues) they don’t, maybe, play three games a week. They’re not used to that grind here … going day in and day out,” Wilkinson said. When it came to Johnson, a Dayton native, Wilkinson said what she learned was “the physicality of the game.” The season opener was the only game Johnson has not played. Since then, she has started six games, come off the bench to play in ten other games and has scored five goals and three assists. Johnson also described the lessons she’s learned from her freshman season. “How much work you put forth as a whole team, like you have to have a common goal and make sure you are on the same page when you are going into the season and each game, and I think that will carry into next year as well,” Johnson said.
Lionel Messi reached another milestone in La Liga following his exploits against SD Huesca on Sunday nightThings didn’t get off to the smoothest of starts for Barcelona though when Colombian forward Cucho Hernandez grabbed a goal inside the third minute of the game at the Camp Nou for Huesca.But Messi spared the hosts’ blushes by putting the scoreline back level 13 minutes later.The Barcelona captain added his second goal and the side’s sixth of the day following an own-goal by Jorge Pulido and strikes by Luis Suarez, Ousmane Dembele, and Ivan Rakitic.Alex Gallar did add a consolation goal for Huesca before the end of the first-half.A Jordi Alba goal and an injury-time penalty by Luis Suarez sealed an 8-2 win for Barcelona.But the night belonged to Messi after setting up Rakitic for Barcelona’s fifth goal of the night.Zidane reveals Sergio Ramos injury concern for Real Madrid Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Zinedine Zidane has put Sergio Ramos’ availability for Real Madrid’s trip to Sevilla next weekend in doubt after withdrawing him against Levante.It means that the Argentina international has become the first-ever player in the history of La Liga to take his overall assist tally to 150.Messi’s 16th-minute strike against Huesca also means that he has scored against 37 out of the 40 teams he’s played against in Spain.5 – Current players most assists in the top five European leagues:1 – LIONEL MESSI: 1502 – Cesc Fàbregas: 1433 – Mesut Özil: 1284 – Cristiano Ronaldo: 122 5 – Dani Alves: 110Ace. pic.twitter.com/hbRi8imFF5— OptaJose (@OptaJose) September 2, 2018
The former Marseille, Parma, Napoli and Lyon footballer is now ruling women’s football thanks to his managerial skills with Lyon WomenOlympique Lyonnais Féminin is a project founded in 2004 by Olympique Lyonnais in the French football league.Since then, the team has won a record 16 Division 1 championships, 9 Coupe de France, and 5 UEFA Women’s Champions League.Their most recent win came on May 24th, when Lyon Women beat Germany’s Wolfsburg 4-1 after extra time.And apart from the footballer’s work, one man has made this possible: Reynald Pedros.The former Parma, Napoli, Montpellier, Marseille and Lyon player is now ready to coach in his most difficult adventure.Apart from winning the Women’s Champions League, he also was selected today as The Best FIFA Women’s Coach, beating Asako Takakura from Japan and Sarina Wiegman from the Netherlands.Wullaert says City are ready for the Women’s Champions League Manuel R. Medina – September 9, 2019 According to Manchester City forward Tessa Wullaert his team can focus now on the UEFA Women’s Champions League after defeating Manchester United on Saturday.There were originally ten coaches shortlisted, but on September 3rd, the three finalists were announced.This is the first time a man has won the award since past winners include Silvia Neid from Germany in 2016 and Wiegman from the Netherlands just last year.The Best FIFA Women’s Coach Award 2016: Silvia Neid – Germany 2017: Sarina Wiegman – Netherlands 2018: Reynald Pedros – Lyon WomenCongratulations, Reynald Pedros 👏Winner of #TheBest FIFA Women’s Coach 2018 🏆#FIFAFootballAwards pic.twitter.com/dKDXBHW3km— FIFA Women’s World Cup 🇫🇷 (@FIFAWWC) September 24, 2018
Trump speaks by phone with Merkel in the Oval Office at the White House in Washington. Photo: ReutersUS president Donald Trump has re-decorated the Oval Office according to his opulent tastes with new gold curtains and a red-and-beige rug with green leaves, the media reported.A CBS News report on Friday said that these changes came naturally to Trump whose family home is a three-storey penthouse in New York’s Trump Tower.His ‘Versailles in the Sky’, as it has come to be known, is accented with marble, the family “coat of arms”, and paintings of Greek gods along with plenty of golden coloured items around the house.One of the most notable choices Trump made in the Oval Office in accordance with his love of gilded decor, was replacing the red curtains used during former president Barack Obama’s second term with a set of gold ones.While used briefly by former president George W Bush, these curtains ironically first hung in the Oval Office during Bill Clinton’s presidency. President Bush ultimately swapped them out for a slightly different set of golden drapes, the report said.The next replacement was the tan-and-navy rug which the Obama administration had laid out in 2010 with inspirational quotes from five American heroes around its outer edge.But one item that Trump has retained from the previous administration is the Resolute Desk, as it is officially known, the most ornate of the Oval Office desks and also the most popular one, the report said.Used by Obama, George W Bush, Bill Clinton, Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, and John F Kennedy, the Resolute Desk has been used by more US presidents than the Hoover Desk, the Johnson Desk and the Wilson Desk combined.Opulent and highly ornamented, its wood was salvaged from a British ship called the HMS Resolute, which explored the Arctic in the mid-1800s.
RICHMOND, Virginia – Gov. Terry McAuliffe vetoed legislation Tuesday that sought to remove state and federal funding for women’s health providers such as Planned Parenthood and any other groups that perform abortions in Virginia.In his veto statement, McAuliffe said the bill, HB 2264, “would harm tens of thousands of Virginians who rely on the health care services and programs provided by Planned Parenthood health centers, by denying them access to affordable care.”Planned Parenthood held a veto ceremony on the steps of the Governor’s Mansion. According to the organization, more than 22,000 people in Richmond, Hampton, Virginia Beach, Charlottesville, and Roanoke rely on Planned Parenthood for health care, including cancer screenings, birth control, testing for and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, well-woman exams and legal abortions.“We are proud to have a governor in Virginia who stands with the women of our commonwealth,” said Paulette McElwain, president and CEO of the Virginia League for Planned Parenthood. She said McAuliffe “understands how vitally important access to comprehensive reproductive health care provided by Planned Parenthood is for women.”Pro-life activists lined the steps of the Governor’s Mansion bearing signs reading “All Lives Matter” and “Say No to Planned Parenthood.” In a press release, the Family Foundation of Virginia rejected the assertion that women would no longer have access to health care if the bill had been enacted.The foundation said the legislation would have redirected non-Medicaid taxpayer funding from organizations that provide abortions to hospitals and health centers that provide more comprehensive services for women.“Nothing in Virginia right now is more predictable than Terry McAuliffe doing all that he can to ensure that taxpayers are forced to prop up the abortion industry,” said Victoria Cobb, president of the Family Foundation. “If there’s one issue on which Gov. McAuliffe has been ideologically rigid, it is his unwavering support and protection of the same $1 billion abortion industry that contributed nearly $2 million to his election.”Del. Ben Cline, R-Amherst, sponsored HB 2264. He introduced identical legislation in the General Assembly’s 2016 session. Last year’s bill passed both the House and the Senate but was vetoed by McAuliffe. The House fell one vote short of overriding the governor’s veto.HB 2264 passed the House 60-33 on Feb. 7 and the Senate 20-19 on Feb. 14.For women’s rights advocates, McAuliffe’s veto comes as a relief. Republicans would have to muster a two-thirds majority in each chamber – 67 votes in the House and 27 in the Senate – to override the veto.“Defunding Planned Parenthood is a blatant attempt to deny women access to the full range of reproductive health care services, and Virginia women won’t stand for it,” said Anna Scholl, executive director of Progress Virginia, a liberal advocacy group.“Politicians in Richmond don’t get to decide where women get their health care and what kind of services they receive, and we’re glad that Gov. McAuliffe agrees.”
French TV technology and services provider Netgem posted a small net loss on increased revenues for the first half as it continued to invest in its expansion plans in Europe, Asia Pacific and Mexico.The group posted revenues of €37.7 million, up 12%, with a net loss of €0.6 million, compared with a profit of €3.7 million last year. Operating income dropped from €4.1 million to zero.The company continued to invest in its hardware and software platforms as well as the Videofutur service. Netgem TV, its services arm, posted revenues of 217.9 million, up 19%, while the NetBox arm saw a 7% revenue increase to €19.8 million. The company said that more of its software value was now coming from mobile and cloud activities.The company merged its VideoFutur brand into a new pan-European Netgem TV unit, offering a fully managed and shared TV platform as a service in the cloud.